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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 167-172

Significance of extreme leukocytosis in evaluation of febrile children aged 3-36 months: A single center experience


1 Department of Neonatology, Childs Central Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of pediatrics, Almustansiriya University College of Medicine, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Sadek H Ghani
Child's Central Teaching Hospital, Baghdad
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2072-8069.198121

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Background: Emergency department evaluation of young febrile children often includes measurement of white blood cell (WBC) count. Although a high WBC count is associated with an increased likelihood of infection, the clinical significance of extreme leukocytosis (EL) (a WBC count of ≥25,000/mm 3 ), has not been well studied. Objective: The aim of this study is to study the correlation between the level of WBC and the cause of fever in febrile children and to assess if WBC level helpful in predicting the seriousness of febrile illness. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional case series study conducted over 5 months from August 01 to December 31, 2015, in the emergency department at child central teaching hospital in Baghdad city in Iraq. The study was evaluating children aged 3-36 months admitted to the emergency department for fever. WBC count was done either manually or a complete blood count by automated hematologic analyzer. Results: Of those 129 febrile children were enrolled in this study, 42 patients with EL were identified and compared with 87 patients with moderate leukocytosis (ML). Pneumonia was the only diagnosis found to be significantly higher in EL group 17 cases (40.5%) versus 15 cases (17.2%) in ML group with P value (0.004). Meningitis was higher in patient with ML with P value (0.03). Finally, EL was associated with higher rates of admission to hospital (P < 0.036). Conclusions: The presence of EL indicates a higher risk of having pneumonia. The degree of leukocytosis (extreme or moderate) does not affect the rates of serious bacterial infection.


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