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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 47-50

Prognostic values of β2 microglobulin, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6 in patients with different stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

1 Department of Hematology, Teaching Laboratories, Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq
3 Department of Clinical Hematology, The National Center of Hematology, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yaseen M Taher
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Al Iraqia University, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijh.ijh_4_20

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BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a monoclonal disorder characterized by relentless accumulation of monoclonal B-cell. Beta-2 microglobulin (β2m) is an extracellular protein that is bound to the chain of Class 1 major histocompatibility complex molecule, which is present on all nucleated cells. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a T-cell-derived pleiotropic cytokine which is involved in the mechanism of survival of leukemic B-cell. IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in the site of inflammation; it plays a major role in the acute-phase response. β2m, IL-4, and IL-6 may have prognostic value in patients with CLL. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to estimate the levels of β2m, IL-4, and IL-6 in different stages in patients with CLL and to know if there is prognostic significance of β2m, IL-4, and IL-6 in those patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on fifty patients from March 2013 to March 2015 including 36 males and 14 females; all were newly diagnosed CLL. Those patients were divided into two groups depending on the stages of disease: Group I (21) patients and Group II (29) patients according to the Rai staging system. Diagnosis of CLL was determined for all those patients by complete blood count and blood films and flow cytometry. The estimation of β2m, IL-4, and IL-6 was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was 2.3:1; there were 29 (58%) patients in Group I (Rai Stages 0, I, and II) and 21 patients (42%) in Group II (Rai Stages III and IV). β2m, IL-4, and IL-6 were elevated in patients with advance stage of the disease as the levels of these prognostic markers was higher in Group II compared to Group I. CONCLUSION: The elevation of β2-m, IL-4, and IL-6 indicates bad prognosis of the disease and poor outcome because the serum level of β2m, IL-4, and IL-6 is increased in the advanced stages of the disease.

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