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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 150-154

Evaluation of anti-A and anti-B IgM and anti-AB IgG antibody titers in Group O blood Iraqi donors

1 Department of Laboratories, AL-Khadymia Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, AL- Nahrain university, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Huda Hadi Jassim
Department of Laboratories, AL-Khadymia Teaching Hospital, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijh.ijh_43_20

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BACKGROUND: Blood group O is transfused as a universal blood group in emergencies. The red cells of blood Group O possess no major ABO antigens, while the blood Group O plasma contains naturally occurring IgM anti-A and anti-B and cross-reacting IgG anti-AB antibodies. Thus, the transfusion of blood Group O units may cause marked destruction of the recipients' A or B red cells manifested as severe acute hemolytic transfusion reactions owing to potent ABO hemolytic antibodies. OBJECTIVES: This study was done to estimate the titers of anti-ABO antibodies in Group O blood donors and to suggest a possible scheme to introduce as a routine testing for high ABO antibodies' titers in blood Group O donors in Iraqi blood transfusion centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred blood Group O Iraqi healthy blood donors (192 males and 8 females, age range: 18–59) were chosen to evaluate the titer of ABO antibodies (IgM and IgG) in their serums using tube test. RESULTS: The prevalence of high-titer anti-A and anti-B IgM antibody at 1:50 dilution in this study was 98.5% and 97.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high-titer anti-AB IgG measured by dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol method of at least 50 was 63% and 74%, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of high-titer anti-A and anti-B IgM and IgG antibodies among blood Group O Iraqi donors. The detection of IgG antibodies is more practical by using dithiothreitol method as it needs much shorter incubation time; however, 2-ME is more sensitive. Detection of high-titer anti-A IgM antibody in dangerous universal donors, by immediate spin at 1:50 dilution, can be used alone in practice, replacing the need to use all portfolio of tests of anti-ABO antibodies.

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