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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 65-68

Congenital factor XIII deficiency in Iraq: An 8-year single-center study


Department of Pediatrics, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Afrah A Salih
Department of Pediatrics, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijh.ijh_1_21

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BACKGROUND: Congenital FXIII deficiency is a rare genetic bleeding disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern with a frequency of 1/2 million individuals in the human population. Deficiency of FXIII is associated with significant bleeding disorders. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the demographic parameters, clinical presentations, and outcome of patients who were diagnosed with congenital factor XIII deficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of patients who were diagnosed with congenital FXIII deficiency over a period from August 2008 to August 2016 was conducted. The study included patients who were diagnosed by having bleeding tendency and normal standard coagulation tests (normal platelet count, normal prothrombin time; normal partial thromboplastin time, and normal bleeding time) and the diagnosis was confirmed by clot solubility test in 5M urea. The diagnosis was made in the Hemophilia Ward, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad. RESULTS: There were 111 cases of other coagulation factors' deficiency (rare bleeding disorders) registered in the center, congenital FXIII deficiency represented 24 (22%) of them. Males represented 14 (58.3%) and females 10 (41.7%) of patients. Most of the patients (41.7%) had their symptoms during the 1st year of life. Positive consanguinity was found in 100% of patients and 14 (58.3%) patients had a family history of FXIII deficiency. Umbilical cord bleeding and gum bleeding were present in 37.5% and 20.8%, respectively, and they were the most common first presenting symptoms of FXIII-deficient patients, while muscle hematoma (28.5%) and joint bleeding (24.7%) were the most common presenting symptoms in follow-up visits. The majority of the patients (79.1%) did not develop complications, the complications were developed in 3 (12.4%) patients, which were intracranial bleeding in 2 (8.3%) patients and liver hematoma in 1 (4.1%) patient. One patient (4.1%) developed recurrent abortion and one patient (4.1%) developed hepatitis C. No death was reported during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: FXIII deficiency founded to be a more common rare bleeding disorder among Iraqi patients, with a high rate of consanguineous marriage. Umbilical cord bleeding and gum bleeding were the most common presenting symptoms for FXIII deficiency. There was a considerable delay in the diagnosis of FXIII deficiency in the majority of patients.


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